Food is digested in two stages. The first stage involves the bolus (where the concentration of enzymes is low) as it moves along the alimentary tract. At this stage, the food is subjected to primary treatment, the boluses are first broken down into smaller ones and these in turn become separate molecules.
The main process of digestion (the breakdown of molecules) occurs at the second stage when digestion takes place in the intestine near the intestinal wall. This type of digestion, called parietal digestion, is very good for the organism. The first advantage, which has already been mentioned, is that it is possible to attain a very high rate of digestion with only small amounts of enzymes. The other advantage is that the digestive enzymes can be used sparingly. The enzymes that are adsorbed on the intestinal wall are preserved and continue to serve the organism for a long time, while those from the bolus are eliminated together with the remains of the undigested food and are thus lost. The third and final advantage is that the completely digested food, which is ready to be absorbed by the blood, appears to be just where absorption takes place, i. e. close to the intestinal wall. This greatly accelerates and improves absorption.
This discovery allowed another mystery to be solved. Physicians have long been aware that sometimes in some humans the alimentary glands almost stop function as a result of illness. The sick person does not notice this since it almost does not aftect his digestion. How the food was digested remained a puzzle. Now it has been discovered that the negligible amounts of enzymes secreted by a faulty gland are adsorbed by the intestinal wall, accumulated and retained, thus ensuring the normal digestion of food.